The restructuring technology of meat originated in the 1960s. It refers to the extraction of matrix proteins in muscle fibers and the use of additives by means of mechanical and additive materials (salt, edible complex phosphate, animal and vegetable protein, starch, carrageenan, etc.). Co-processing technology for reconstituting meat granules or meat pieces, directly sold after freezing or pre-heat treated to preserve and improve the texture of the meat products.

In the processing of meat products, the flesh or minced meat cannot be fully utilized due to processing and quality reasons, and through the restructuring technology of meat, these cheap boneless or minced meat can be fully utilized to improve its functional properties and additional value. Restructured meat technology has developed rapidly in developed countries such as the United Kingdom and the United States, and its products also account for a large proportion of the US food market, including steak, roast beef, pork chops, chicken sausage, beef sausage, beef pie and other restructured meat products. China’s research on restructured meat started late. From 1996, Zhang Rongqiang used pure natural raw materials such as fresh fish and soy protein to process into the first generation of natural high-grade compound plant-type nutrient fish enema in China. By 2003, Xie Chao used beef as raw material. The compound-free beef sausages processed by the compound protease treatment and restructuring processing have occupied a considerable proportion in the meat market of China. It can be seen that meat restructuring technology has become an important means of processing meat products. It not only accelerates the development of the meat industry but also will occupy a larger space for development. This paper reviews the reprocessing technology of meat and looks forward to its development trend.

1. Restructured meat processing technology

At present, restructured meat processing technology has been widely used in the processing of fish and livestock products. According to the bonding mechanism of restructured meat, the restructuring technology can be divided into enzymatic processing technology, chemical processing technology, physical processing technology, and the processing principle is introduced separately.

1.1 Enzymatic processing technology

Enzymatic processing technology refers to the use of enzymes to catalyze the polymerization of muscle myofibrillar proteins and enzymes, such as casein, soy protein isolate (SPI), and other homologous or heterologous protein groups. And a covalent cross-linking reaction, which improves the gelling ability of the protein and the stability of the gel, thereby bonding the meat pieces and the meat pieces together under suitable conditions. Enzymatic processing technology mainly uses transglutaminase (TG), which can catalyze the acyl transfer reaction inside protein molecules or between protein molecules to produce covalent cross-linking. Myosin and actin in muscle are one of the most suitable substrates for glutamine transaminase. After TG catalysis, a dense three-dimensional network is formed between muscle protein molecules, which will produce different sizes of minced meat. Bonding together improves the quality of the meat product and increases the added value of the product. At present, TG powder produced by Japan Chiba Powder Co., Ltd. and Ajinomoto Co., Ltd. has been widely used in simulated foods for processing fish and meat. In addition to TG powder, a plasma fibrin binder was developed, the bonding mechanism of which is the final stage of the simulation of blood coagulation. Ca2+ is used to activate fibrinogen to form a semi-rigid fibrin monomer. The monomer spontaneously forms a soluble polymer linked by hydrogen bonding. The polymer physically binds the surrounding minced meat by chemical action to form large pieces of meat or large pieces of meat. . Huang Yaojiang and others also prepared a fibrinogen solution through fresh sheep blood, and the meat was fully bonded by catalytic cross-linking of thrombin. By comparing the test with the normal meat and the post-cooked state, the results showed that the restructured meat adhered by this method had no difference with the normal meat. This processing technology for plasma fibrin adhesives is now patented.

1.2 Chemical processing technology

Since the price of TG powder is relatively expensive, in order to reduce the production cost of the restructured meat and ensure the quality of the product, people have studied the use of chemical methods such as sodium alginate and calcium chloride, and this method has been patented. This method is based on the principle that sodium alginate has a high carboxyl activity and can form a gel with a divalent or higher metal salt other than magnesium and mercury. The production of restructured meat uses sodium alginate and Ca2+ to form a calcium alginate gel. The gel strength depends on the Ca2+ content and temperature in the solution, thereby obtaining various gels ranging from soft to rigid; Means et al. confirmed that alginate and Ca2+ can form a thermoreversible gel and bind the minced meat. According to Imeson and other scholars, some anionic polysaccharides such as alginate can interact with proteins such as myosin and bovine serum albumin by electrostatic interaction. In addition, there is a method of using gellan gum. In the heated state, the gellan gum is in an irregular linear shape, and in the presence of the gel promoting factors Ca2+ and Mg2+, it can be cooled to form a rigid double helix. Glue and the spirals are brought together by a gel-promoting factor. Zhang Huizhen studied the effect of sodium alginate and gellan gum on the gel properties. It was found that the additional amount of sodium alginate had a great influence on various properties.

1.3 Physical processing technology

In addition to the enzymatic and chemical methods, the restructured meat processing technology also uses heating technology. It uses the action of salt, phosphate, and mechanical to extract the muscle fibrin from the meat to form a gel to bond the meat. Purpose, but heating can produce unpleasant odors and unacceptable fading. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the production of restructured meat by heating, it is possible to produce restructured meat with the characteristics of fresh meat. Now there is a non-thermal processing physical processing technology – high-pressure treatment technology (pressure > 200 MPa), which improves moisture-protein or Protein-protein interactions to enhance the functional properties of meat products. The results of Hong et al. showed that under conditions of 200 MPa, 0.25% salt and 0.75% δ-glucoside lactone and 0.75% carrageenan were added at 4 ° C for 30 min, although the color of the meat was a bit like cooked. Fading, but the binding of meat is enhanced, and it is confirmed that δ-glucose lactone and carrageenan can be used as a substitute for salt to meet the needs of consumers.

2. The development trend of restructured meat technology

2.1 Security and stability

Today, people’s living standards are increasing, people not only care about their own health but also pay attention to the safety of food. Restructured meat is produced on the premise of reducing production costs and reducing waste of resources. Therefore, although there are many advantages in reconstituted meat, in order to improve the water retention, texture, taste, and other indicators of restructured meat, consumers are easy to accept and are in production. When the meat is reconstituted, food additives such as salt, phosphate, and TG powder are added. The addition of these substances should not only ensure the chemical safety of the products but also ensure the safety and safety of the products. Meat is the natural medium of microbes. The probability of infecting microbes is greater than that of whole meat. The restructured meat binds the minced meat and the chance of infecting microorganisms is greatly increased. Therefore, low-temperature processing and cold sterilization are used to control the restructured meat. Microorganisms are necessary to ensure the hygienic safety of restructured meat and to extend the shelf life of restructured meat. Restructured meat will increase the oxygen content of the product during the process of bonding the minced meat, and oxidation is an important factor in food deterioration. Controlling the oxidation of restructured meat is an important measure to enhance the stability of products. Foreign scholars have also done some research in this regard. Rajendran Thomas et al. found that the reconstituted buffalo mass had little fat oxidation and microbial spoilage during cold storage. Sensory evaluators believed that the meat quality and quality of the product were still good after 20 days of storage of the meat and restructured meat packed in polypropylene under aerobic refrigeration. Akashi et al. studied the lysozyme in egg white protein to have a good prolongation effect on the preservation of Vienna sausage. Modi et al. studied the watery beef patties containing pod powder and frozen at -16+2 °C for 4 months to ensure the flavor quality of the product. Domestic scholars’ research in this area has not been reported so far, but today, with an increasing emphasis on food safety, this should be a new research topic.

2.2. Functionality

At present, due to the continuous improvement of people’s living standards, people’s demand for meat and meat products is also increasing year by year, but excessive intake of meat foods can cause diseases such as high blood pressure, high blood fat, obesity, etc., so in order to satisfy people’s meat The development of complete protein and lipid substances and vitamins, the development of health-care meat products will be an important area for the development of the meat food industry in the future, and restructured meat processing technology is an effective way to develop health-care meat products.

2.2.1 Functional meat products of dietary fiber

According to the US Dietetic Council, recommended fiber intake for adults ranges from 25 to 30 g/d or 10 to 13 g/1000 kcal, and the ratio of insoluble to dissolved should be 3:1, but in developing countries, it is 60~ 120g/d. Dietary fiber mainly has important physiological functions such as preventing coronary heart disease, controlling and treating obesity. Borders et al. reviewed the role of dietary fiber in food, and discussed dietary fiber from different sources, including plant-derived (cereal, fruit), animal-derived (chitosan) and its use as restructured fish. The functional role of the product ingredients. Kritz et al. also studied the function of pectin, which showed that pectin, a soluble dietary fiber, can lower cholesterol levels in patients with hyperlipidemia; patients with type 2 diabetes can reduce their intake by reducing carbohydrate absorption. The risk of elevated glucose in the blood. A’nchez-Alonso et al. added 3% wheat dietary fiber to the restructured fish meat product and found that the texture hardness and viscosity of the product were improved. These studies indicate that it is feasible to develop dietary fiber functional meat products.

2.2.2 Antioxidant functional meat products

Antioxidant means that it can effectively remove harmful free radicals, prevent lipid peroxidation, prevent oxidative damage of free radicals to biological macromolecules, and ensure the normal structure and function of cells. Common anti-oxidant substances include soy peptides and amino acids, tea polyphenols, grape seeds and the like. Sa’nchez-Alonso et al. added white grape dregs with anti-oxidation to the recombinant fish meat products and stored under frozen conditions for 6 months. The results showed that the white grape dregs fiber can effectively prevent oxidation and can be used as food. A functional ingredient. The addition of anti-oxidant ingredients to meat products not only extends the shelf life of the food, but also benefits the health of the consumer.

2.2.3 Functional meat products that enhance unsaturated fatty acids

In developed countries, cardiovascular disease has become the leading cause of human death, and unreasonable diet is one of the main causes of cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of nuts, especially walnuts, can reduce the risk of death from myocardial infarction or cardiovascular disease. Therefore, it is very important to add natural nutrients to the restructured meat to strengthen the unsaturated fatty acid content. Serrano et al. used microbial glutamine transaminase and sodium caseinate as cold binders to add walnut powder to the restructured steak. The results showed that the restructured steak not only had good flavor characteristics and physical and chemical properties, but also had good mechanical processing. characteristic.

3. Outlook

The restructured meat processing technology is now widely used in the meat processing industry, and the products produced are mostly cooked products. In the future, restructured meat products based on raw food products, such as frozen conditioning foods, products that enhance certain nutrients for special populations, will become a major development direction, and their functionality and durability will be greater. In addition, with the deepening of research, the chemical safety and microbiological safety of restructured meat products will be evaluated, and the stability of shelf life will be ensured by technical means.